# Handbook of Learning Analytics

## Chapter 3

Handbook of Learning Analytics

First Edition

### Measurement and its Uses in Learning Analytics

Yoav Bergner

#### Abstract

Psychological measurement is a process for making warranted claims about states of mind. As such, it typically comprises the following: defining a construct; specifying a measurement model and (developing) a reliable instrument; analyzing and accounting for various sources of error (including operator error); and framing a valid argument for particular uses of the outcome. Measurement of latent variables is, after all, a noisy endeavor that can nevertheless have high-stakes consequences for individuals and groups. This chapter is intended to serve as an introduction to educational and psychological measurement for practitioners in learning analytics and educational data mining. It is organized thematically rather than historically, from more conceptual material about constructs, instruments, and sources of measurement error toward increasing technical detail about particular measurement models and their uses. Some of the philosophical differences between explanatory and predictive modelling are explored toward the end.

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About this Chapter

**Title**

Measurement and its Uses in Learning Analytics

**Book Title**

Handbook of Learning Analytics

**Pages**

pp. 35-48

**Copyright**

2017

**DOI**

10.18608/hla17.003

**ISBN**

978-0-9952408-0-3

**Publisher**

Society for Learning Analytics Research

**Authors**

Yoav Bergner

**Author Affiliations**

Learning Analytics Research Network, New York University, USA

**Editors**

Charles Lang^{1}

George Siemens^{2}

Alyssa Wise^{3}

Dragan Gašević^{4}

**Editor Affiliations**

1. Teachers College, Columbia University, USA

2. LINK Research Lab, University of Texas at Arlington, USA

3. Learning Analytics Research Network, New York University, USA

4. Schools of Education and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, UK